Notes

   1One possible genealogy for Apollo appears below.

   2According to Greek myth, Gaia was forced by her jealous husband, Ouranos, to confine their many children within her own body. When her suffering became intolerable, she presented her son, Cronus, with a sickle, and this he used to castrate his father and thus end his mother's cruel ordeal. Ouranos, however, threatened that Cronus, too, would be overthrown by one of his own offspring. Lest his father's prediction come true, Cronus swallowed his own children whole as soon as his sister-consort Rhea gave birth to them.

Rhea, however, devised a plan of her own, and swaddling a stone so that it resembled her newborn son, she deceived Cronus into swallowing it instead of the infant Zeus, whom she secreted away. Once Zeus was fully grown, she contrived for Cronus to vomit up his other children. Thus liberated, they joined with Zeus to overthrow Cronus and the other Titans and established their own domain atop Mount Olympus. Cronus the liberator had become Cronus the tyrant, and was imprisoned for his cruelty in Tartarus along with his brother and sister Titans.

A very ancient corn god, Cronus would eventually be identified with Chronos (Kronos), the god of time. Worshipped by the Romans as Saturn, he was honored with riotous celebrations during annual harvest festivals. The familiar images of "Father Time" and "The Grim Reaper," both of whom carry a sickle, are more recent variants of this archetypal personification of time. Their ambivalent character, alternately inspiring feelings of both apprehension and release, is brilliantly reflected in both Schubert's song, "Death and the Maiden," and Holst's "Saturn, the Bringer of Old Age," the fifth and longest movement of The Planets (1905). A solemn march-like character pervades both pieces, poetically suggesting the steady, irrevocable tread of time.

   3Fritz Graf, "Apollo," in The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization. (New York: Oxford, 1998), 51.

   4Richard William Vyvyan Catling, "Delos," in The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization. (New York: Oxford, 1998), 213. The author describes Delos in decidedly bleak terms: "Composed of gneiss and granite, it is barren and almost waterless and was incapable of supporting its inhabitants." Thus the infant Apollo's superhuman strength and viability alone enabled him to endure the harsh natural environment of the tiny island of his birth.

   5The Muses, daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, were Calliope (epic poetry), Clio (history), Erato (lyric poetry and hymns), Euterpe (flute playing), Melpomene (tragedy), Polyhymnia (mime), Terpsichore (dance), Thalia (comedy), and Urania (astronomy).

   6See n. 2.

   7Keats, who just several years earlier had penned an "Imitaton of Spenser," would revisit Hyperion in another unfinished work, the Fall of Hyperion, (1819), in which Mnemosyne, as her Roman alter ego Moneta, reappears in a key role. The poet, speaking this time in the first person, and mirroring the angst of the young Apollo, predicts that "Whether the dream now purposed to rehearse / Be poet's or fanatic's will be known / When this warm scribe my hand is in the grave."

   8The bracketed text was entered by Keats in pencil in the original manuscript.

   9See The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, (4th ed.), available online at the following URL:

"Memory"

   10John D. Barry, "A Note on Stephen Crane," Bookman 13 (April 1901): 148. Crane's fear of being influenced by knowledge of other authors' works seems all the more self-defeating, as "He was then about twenty-one years of age, and he was woefully ignorant of books."

Barry's text is available online at the following URL:

John D. Barry

   11For this definition of "modernism," see the Merriam Webster Online Dictionary at the following URL:

"Modernism"

This definition is incorporated into that used by the Art Institute of Chicago:

"Modernism" (AIC)

   12Mnemophobia is a term describing a persistent and irrational fear of memories, specifically those associated with negative experiences in the past. In extreme cases, it is known to cause panic attacks and antisocial behavior.

   13The musicological and theoretical literature concerned with the subject of borrowed musical material and "the anxiety of influence" is voluminous. The following annotated bibliography is an especially useful point of departure:

Musical Borrowing

Lyn E. Burkett's dissertation, Counterpoint as a Model for Post-Tonal Experimental Music: Theories of Seeger, Krenek, Hindemith, and Schoenberg (Indiana University, 1999), is also of interest.

Burkett

Burkett observes, "Joseph Straus's book Remaking the Past: Musical Modernism and the Influence of Tonal Tradition discusses twentieth-century composers' relationships with the musical past, and through a series of analyses, examines how these relationships influenced the compositional choices of composers such as Stravinsky and Schoenberg. Through an adaptation of Harold Bloom's theory of poetic influence, Straus explains how the 'anxiety of influence' motivated many twentieth-century composers to 'misread' tonal conventions familiar to their predecessors."

It should be emphasized that Bloom's theory is not equally applicable to all composers in all historical periods. Certain individuals and cultures place a much higher value on the retention and creative elaboration of traditional materials. Curt Sachs has made this point in connection with the music of the Middle Ages:

Medieval music shares with non-European primitive music the reliance on memory, tradition, improvisation, and non-intellectualism. This makes it basically different from later western music, which rests on the mentality of writers and readers, on subtilizing and puzzling out.

Quoted by Barry E. Ebersole, "Medieval Music Performance," published at the following URL:

Sachs

   14 Dr. Jack Logan, professor of music at San Diego State University, provides the following account at the URL cited below:

The belief was of such an overpowering nature that the composer feared he would die during a year that was a multiple of 13. He so dreaded his sixty-fifth birthday that a friend asked composer and astrologist Dane Rudhyar to prepare Schoenberg's horoscope. Rudhyar did this and told Schoenberg that although the year was dangerous, it was not necessarily fatal. Schoenberg survived it. But in 1951, on his seventy-sixth birthday, the Viennese musician and astrologist Oscar Adler wrote Schoenberg a note warning him that the year was a critical one: 7 plus 6 equals 13. This stunned and depressed the composer, for up to that point he had only been wary of multiples of 13 and never considered adding the digits of his age. He became obsessed with this idea and many friends report that he frequently said: "If I can only pull through this year I shall be safe."

On Friday, July 13, of his seventy-sixth year, Arnold Schoenberg stayed in bed-sick, anxious and depressed. Shortly before midnight his wife leaned over and whispered, "You see, the day is almost over. All that worry was for nothing." He looked at her and died.

Schoenberg's "belief" in triskaidekaphobia (the fear of the number 13) and his profoundly superstitious nature probably triggered his death.

Logan

Other references on the web to Schönberg's fear of the number thirteen provide further details:

Even the new, disturbing atonal world, emerging out of Mozart’s Vienna, had links to the esoteric. Arnold Schoenberg, high priest of atonality, was a deeply religious man, with a lasting interest in number mysticism. . . . His fascination with number, however, manifested in other ways, among them a fear of the number 13. Strangely, Schoenberg was born on September 13, 1874, and died on Friday, July 13, 1951.

Lachman

It is said that the reason his late opera is called Moses and Aron, rather than Moses and Aaron (the correct spelling with two As) is because the latter spelling has thirteen letters in it. He was born (and, it turned out, died) on the thirteenth of the month, and thought of this as a portent. He once refused to rent a house because it had the number 13, and feared turning 76, because its digits add up to thirteen.

Free Dictionary

He died at age 76 (7 + 6 = 13) on Friday, July 13, 1951, at 13 minutes to midnight.

Dartmouth

As Schönberg's phobia appears to have been connected with his interest in numerology and the occult, the following may also be of some interest:

Science Daily

John Covach

Tonietti (PDF)

   15Some of these are illustrated at the following URL:

Schönberg Paintings

   16Arnold Schoenberg, Style and Idea: Selected Writings of Arnold Schoenberg, ed. Leonard Stein (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), 246.

   17This quote appears on p. 6 of the booklet accompanying The Music of Arnold Schoenberg, Vol. 1, on Columbia Masterworks M2S679, © 1962 by Columbia Records.

   18This quote from the commentary by David Johnson and subsequent quoted references to Die Glückliche Hand are taken from pp. 40 and 44 of the booklet accompanying The Music of Arnold Schoenberg, Vol. 1, on Columbia Masterworks M2S679, © 1962 by Columbia Records.

   19For an interesting article by Matthias Schmidt tracing the "anxiety of influence" in the Second Symphony (1922) of Ernst Krenek, Schönberg's younger contemporary, see the following web page.

Matthias Schmidt

Although Schmidt is correct when he states that the "fear of being influenced generally results from an awareness of a predecessor’s strong presence in one’s own consciousness [that] threatens to paralyze creativity when a role model becomes too powerful," it should not be concluded that conscious awareness of the work of previous composers inevitably results in mnemophobia. On the contrary, fear of being influenced by remembered musical forms and styles is almost certainly a consequence of the individual composer's cultural conditioning and psychodynamics and by no means a universal, intrinsic component of the creative process.

   20Quoted from the back cover of the third printing of Silence: Lectures and Writings by John Cage (Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1976).

   21 Paul Cummings, "Oral History Interview with John Cage," Smithsonian Archives of American Art (2 May 1974). Quoted at the following URL:

Paul Cummings/John Cage

   22Calvin Tomkins, The Bride and the Bachelors: Five Masters of the Avant-Garde, expanded ed. (New York: Penguin, 1976), 102. Quoted from a lecture Cage gave at the now defunct Black Mountain College (North Carolina) in 1948.

   23Ibid., 91. Tomkins states that Cage's "doubts and anxieties had become so pressing [in 1945] that he took the advice of several of his friends and went to see a psychiatrist." (p. 98) The session was unsuccessful, as Cage reacted negatively to the doctor's suggestion that he compose even more music. "Cage, felt nevertheless," continues Tomkins, "that he had some severe problems and that something should be done about them." Shortly thereafter, a young Indian woman, Gita Sarabhai, introduced Cage to "the wisdom of the Orient."

   24Quoted, in conversation with Joshua Cody (New York: Ensemble Sospeso), at the following URL:

Joshua Cody/Pierre Boulez

This view of Boulez is corroborated by Jeffrey Perry of Louisiana State University in Music Theory Online: The Online Journal of the Society for Music Theory, Volume 6, Number 5, November  2000:

In the recent republication and reorganization of Boulez's collected critical and analytical prose, the first group of essays is entitled "Cortège des ancêtres" and includes well-known writings on Berg, Ravel, Stravinsky, Schoenberg, Varèse, and J. S. Bach, with an allusion ("La corruption dans les encensoirs") to Baudelaire, thus providing a nearly complete catalogue of those whom he claims as musical forebears. It is difficult to imagine a composer of the twentieth century who more clearly embodies Harold Bloom's anxiety of influence. If we paraphrase Straus's formulation of Bloom's anxiety model of poetic influence so that it applies to the composition of music, a new composition must struggle to find a place for itself in an overcrowded musical world. To do so, it must push earlier compositions aside. More directly, for Boulez, a new composer must struggle to push earlier composers aside; his evocation of the funeral cortege from Le Sacre du printemps is thus a way of suggesting that a proper appreciation of one's ancestors is not enough—they must be exorcised, celebrated, and immolated before one is free to act as a living composer.

Jeffrey Perry

   25The text of the interviews is available online at the following URL:

Lalas/Xenakis, Ferneyhough Interviews

   26This definition of "postmodernism" appears in the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary at the following URL:

"Postmodernism"

   27Ilya Prigogine and and Isabelle Stengers. Order Out of Chaos: Man's New Dialogue with Nature, with a foreword by Alvin Toffler (New York: Bantam Books, 1984), 294–95.

   28Ibid., 312.

   29Jean Bricmont, "Science of Chaos or Chaos in Science?", Physicalia Magazine 17 (1995): 3–4, pp.159–208. Text available online at the following URL:

Jean Bricmont

   30Paul Davies, God and the New Physics (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983), 67–68.

   31Rupert Sheldrake, The Presence of the Past: Morphic Resonance and the Habits of Nature (New York: Vintage Books, 1989), 105–106.

   32From Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1971–1980, Editor-in-Charge Tore Frängsmyr, Editor Sture Forsén, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1993. Text available online at the following URL:

Prigogine Autobiography

   33Richard P. Brennan, "Thermodynamics, First and Second Laws of," and "Entropy," in The Dictionary of Scientific Literacy, (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1992).

   34Quoted in "Ravel's Bolero Comes Under Psychiatric Investigation," Culture Kiosque, 1 September 1997, available online at the following URL:

Ravel

The primary source for this brief article is a study by Dr. Eva Cybulska published on 1 September 1997 in Psychiatric Bulletin.

For an alternate diagnosis of Ravels' condition, see the following science update by John Whitfield published on 22 January 2002 in Nature:

Ravel/Nature

   35Additional details about Copland and Alzheimer's Disease are available at the following URLS:

Copland

Alzheimer's disease

   36For various reviews of this book, the following URL is recommended:

Cummings reviews

   37For reviews of this work, the following URLs are recommended:

And God Created Great Whales/The Village Voice

And God Created Great Whales/MASS MoCA

   38Vinay Ambegaokar, "A Physicist's Reflections, Reminiscences, and Ramblings on the Theme: Memory and Creativity," Arts & Sciences Newsletter Vol. 18 No. 1 (Fall 1996). Available online at the following URL:

Ambegaokar

   39Timothy DeVoogd, "Learning to Sing a Song of Your Own," Arts and Sciences Newsletter Vol. 18 No. 1 (Fall, 1996). Available online at the following URL:

DeVoogd

   40James McConkey, The Anatomy of Memory: An Anthology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 175.

   41From Jenny Newman's "An Interview with Michèle Roberts by Jenny Newman," published at the following URL:

Roberts

   42James McConkey, The Anatomy of Memory: An Anthology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 175.

 

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